Instances of The latest Scenario try predicted to possess PS hence regarding Similar Circumstances getting AusE listeners

Instances of The latest Scenario try predicted to possess PS hence regarding Similar Circumstances getting AusE listeners

Based on complete LDA classifications, each other listener groups are expected to encounter Equivalent Situation whenever identifying Dutch /?-?/, because these vowels are acoustically like distinctive line of indigenous phonemes. not, based on the stepwise DAs each other Dutch /?/ and you can /?/ bear F1 resemblance so you can AusE /?/, F2 resemblance so you’re able to AusE /?:/ and you can /?/, and you may F3 resemblance so you’re able to AusE /?/, /?:/ and /?/. Although not, based on group proportions (age.grams., F2: Dutch /?/ > AusE /?:/, 80% and you can /?/ 15%, Dutch /?/ > AusE /?/, 95% and you can /?:/, 5%), it’s forecast one AusE listeners, up against Subset Scenario, will be separate those two phonemes as a result of the considering the lower acoustic convergence between the F2 and you will F3 signs. Conversely, PS audience was forecast to display down discrimination precision than the AusE audience on account of a top acoustic convergence around the every about three acoustic size and are generally further anticipated to classify one another vowels since the PS /i/, /e/, and you can /u/.

In line with the full Da and you will stepwise habits, AusE audience are forecast to find the Dutch /a-?/ some difficult to detect since these vowels was basically classified all over a few or higher AusE vowel classes, if you are PS listeners was predicted to discover New Scenario from the mostly mapping brand new tunes prior to PS /a/.

During the sum, if forecasts considering listeners’ L1 vowel inventories proportions are borne out, AusE listeners, whoever vowel directory is larger than regarding PS, are needed to own higher discrimination reliability than simply PS listeners having all the five Dutch contrasts. Rather and following L2LP’s acoustic theory, in the event the acoustic differences between L1 and L2 dictate low-native sound feeling, one another listener groups’ discrimination issues will be produce similar performance. That’s, both listener groups are required to face this new, Equivalent, and you will Subset Issues. To check such contrastive hypotheses, naive AusE listeners’ XAB discrimination and you can categorization of five Dutch vowel contrasts (/a-?/, /?-i/, /y-?/, /i-y/, and you may /?-?/) try than others regarding naive PS audience stated within the previous training (Escudero and you will Wanrooij, 2010; Escudero and Williams, 2011).


Twenty-two monolingual AusE students aged 18–45 years (Mage = 24.1 years; 11 females) participated for course credit at Western Sydney University. Participants were born and raised in Greater Western Sydney, and reported no experience with Dutch or any hearing impairment.

Non-native vowel categorization data from the same AusE listeners were compared to non-native vowel categorization data from 40 PS monolinguals (20 females) from Lima, Peru reported in Escudero and Williams (2011). Participants ranged in age from 18 to 30 years 2 , and reported no knowledge of Dutch or hearing impairment. XAB discrimination data from our AusE listeners was then compared to discrimination data of 22 PS listeners reported in Escudero and Wanrooij (2010). Listeners were monolinguals aged 17–28 years (Mage = ; 10 females) born and raised in Lima, Peru their entire life and reported no knowledge of Dutch.

Fellow member study range with the introduce data is carried out in accordance into Human Browse Ethics Committee (HREC), Western Sydney University, acceptance matter H9373.

Stimuli and Process

Both categories of members earliest complete a two-alternative forced choice XAB discrimination task accompanied by a good nonnative categorization task. The brand new auditory stimuli toward XAB discrimination task were 20 without a doubt introduced tokens of every of five Dutch vowels /a/, /?/, /?/, /i/, /y/, and /?/, extracted from recordings developed by 20 local Simple Northern Dutch speakers (10 lady) in monosyllabic utterances for the a basic low-term /sVs/ consonantal context stuck within this a supplier phrase (Adank mais aussi al., 2004b). Regarding XAB task, listeners read around three music in a row and you will were up coming asked to suggest whether or not the first sound (X) sounded a lot more like the next (A) or third (B) sound by clicking on one of two purple squares (viz. “2” and you may “3”) displayed for the a pc screen. There is an inter-stimuli period of 1.2 s, which was chose because it is long enough so you’re able to cause phonological activation (Werker and you will Logan, 1985; Van Hesse and you can Schouten, 1999; Escudero and you may Wanrooij, 2010), and you may a keen inter-trial period regarding 0.5 s following the participant’s choices. The try out are conducted in Praat and you can consisted of four prevents (you to for every compare-/a-?/, /?-i/, /y-?/, /i-?/, and you may /?-?/) which includes 80 trials each.

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